What is neuralgia in adults?


Neuralgia is a failure in a program that is non-pathological. Changes occur in the functioning of the ganglionic and somatic receptors of the peripheral nervous system. The condition is accompanied by a sharp unbearable pain in the zones of compression, inflammation or pinching.

Types and causes of the disease

Neuralgia can be divided into two types. The first type includes diseases in which it is very difficult to determine the etiology of the disease, or it is unclear. In the second type, associated or causal pathological processes are detected.
These two types can also be divided into four subspecies:

    vertebral (vertobrogennaya) neuralgia;
    intercostal neuralgia;
    costoclavicular neuralgia;
    cranial neuralgia.

In turn, these subspecies are also divided by localization.

Vertebral neuralgia:

    pinching the occipital nerve;
    pinching of the sciatic nerve;
    cervical syndrome;
    discogenic torocalgia;
    paretichesky meralgia Rota.

Brain Neuralgia:

    neuralgia of the ear ganglion;
    neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal nerve;
    neuralgia of the target node;
    Fosergil's disease;
    Slydera syndrome;
    pinching of the nasal bundle;
    defeat of the upper laryngeal node.

The main causes of the appearance of a different type of neuralgia can be:

    pathological conditions of the spinal column;
    reaction to various types of allergens;
    pathology of the nervous system;
    infectious processes in the body;
    violation of metabolic processes with the participation of B vitamins;
    cardiovascular pathology;
    toxic damage as a result of the vital activity of bacteria, the action of medical drugs, heavy metal poisoning;
    excessive alcohol intake.

The causes of neuralgia can be two categories: peripheral and central genesis.

The peripheral genesis factors include infectious processes, toxic lesions, vascular irritations.

The causes of central genesis include sclerosis, traumatic conditions, malignant neoplasms, smoking, stress, alcohol intake.

Causes depend on the type of nerve damage.

Neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve:

    chronic sinusitis;
    hypothermia face;
    sclerotic states;
    abnormal arrangement of vessels;
    skull cavity aneurysm;
    surgical tooth extraction;
    brain neoplasms.

Intercostal neuralgia:

    spinal injuries;
    vertebral hernia;
    congenital pathological conditions of the spinal column;
    displacement of the vertebrae;
    defeat of the spinal column with syphilis and tuberculosis;
    spinal curvature;
    hypothermia of the back and / or chest;
    bad turn of the body;
    prolonged sedentary work;
    excessive exercise;
    ankylosing spondylitis

Neuralgia of the sciatic nerve:

    lumbar spine injury;
    sedentary lifestyle;
    hypothermia of the waist, buttocks, thighs;
    neoplasms in the area of ​​the sciatic nerve;
    infections and inflammations of the pelvic organs;
    uneven distribution of physical activity.

Neuralgia of the occipital nerve:

    traumatic injury of the cervical spine;
    hypothermia neck and occipital region;
    neoplasms located in the region of the cervical vertebrae;
    awkward heading (can occur in perfectly healthy people).

The main symptoms

Very often, the disease is formed in the cold season. If this defeat occurred only once, there is no cause for concern. If the pain along the nerve occurs with a certain frequency - this is the reason for going to the doctor.

The main symptom of neuralgia is pain. Sometimes it is so strong that it can only be removed by taking painkillers. May be a change in the color of the skin, their swelling, lacrimation, muscle cramps.

Symptoms vary according to the type of pathological process:
occipital neuralgia

    pain in the neck;
    often pain on one side;
    may radiate to the area of ​​the eyeballs.


    may not manifest for a long time;
    during exacerbation pain occurs in the form of lumbago, localized in the lower back.

paretichesky meralgia Rota

    tingling sensation;
    the formation of "goose skin";
    cold or burning;
    feeling of numbness.

discogenic torocalgia

    sharp pain arising from deep breathing, localized in the chest;
    muscle spasm.

cervico-brachial neuralgia (cervical syndrome)

    pain is localized in the neck;
    there is a "jamming" of the muscles;
    pain radiating to the shoulder girdle and thumb and / or forefinger.

neuralgia of the sciatic nerve

    pain shooting character;
    spreading it to the back of the legs, reaching the heels;
    education in the area of ​​lesion "goose skin".


    pain occurs at night;
    localized in the shoulder joint radiating to the limb.

radiculopathy (radicular syndrome)

    may localize along the entire spinal column.

intercostal neuralgia

    pain occurs during the act of breathing;
    character varied: from blunt to strong lumbago;
    pain is associated with a change in body position, turning, coughing, pressure on certain points located on the spinal column;
    Lasts from several hours to several days;
    there is a feeling of numbness in the affected intercostal space;
    localized in different areas of the chest.

costoclavicular neuralgia

    pain is aching or periodic.

Slydera syndrome

    localization of pain in the region of the eye orbits;
    the pain is sharp and spontaneous;
    unilateral spasm of the circular muscle near the eye.

Fosergil's disease

    disruption of the normal functioning of the facial muscles;
    the presence of specific initiator zones (when touched, there is a sharp pain in all the muscles of the face).

pinching of the ciliary node

    dilation of one pupil;
    eye hypesthesia;
    pain localized inside the eye;

nasal neuralgia neuralgia (Charlin syndrome)

    develops very quickly;
    localized inside the skull;
    there are shooting in the oculo-orbital zone of the face.

neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal node

    pain is short-lived;
    localized in the root zone of the tongue and / or lymphatic tonsils;
    pain may radiate to the palatal, cervical, ear area.

lesion of the upper laryngeal nerve

    throbbing pain;
    transition to the mandibular, ear, eye, shoulder girdle, chest area;
    profuse salivation;

ear node neuralgia

    shooting pain in the neck;
    pain in the mandibular and cervical areas;
    sometimes shooting in the chest and shoulder girdle;
    profuse salivation;
    feeling of ear congestion;
    clicks inside the ear.

trigeminal neuralgia

    characterized by trigeminal attack;
    never occurs during a night's sleep;
    occurs during brushing, chewing food, washing;
    pain lasts up to several minutes;
    most often the pain is localized on the right side of the face;
    numbness of the skin occurs;
    twitching of the facial muscles on the affected side occurs.

Postherpetic neuralgia
Postherpetic neuralgia is distinguished into a separate category. It is a very dangerous disease and is a complication of shingles, which is acute.

The duration of the flow is up to three years. It is characterized by acute recurrent pain and tingling in the area of ​​the spread of the underlying disease. Loss of sensation may be observed. This limits the person to perform the full range of all movements, interferes with work.

The disease occurs against the background of a weakened immune system and / or over the age of sixty years.


The diagnosis is made, as a rule, by a neurologist. On examination, the doctor collects a history of the disease and listens to the patient's complaints. Very often, neuralgia is diagnosed by exclusion.

The doctor prescribes an examination:

    clinical blood test;
    MRI and CT.

Upon receipt of the results it is not possible to establish the cause of the pain.


After the diagnosis, treatment is prescribed. Drug medications and related procedures should be prescribed only by a doctor. Self-medication can be dangerous to health and translate the disease into a protracted, chronic form.

There are several ways to treat neuralgia:

    traditional treatment methods;
    the use of alternative medicine.
Traditional methods of treatment can be divided into medical methods and the use of surgery.

With drug treatment using:

    vitamin complexes;
    anticonvulsant drugs.

Physiotherapeutic procedures have a good effect: electrophoresis with Novocain, laser therapy, the use of Sollux lamps, acupuncture; ultrasound and magnetic therapy.

If nerve inflammation occurs with regularity, surgical intervention is recommended: the nerve is squeezed from the vessel squeezing it. With this method of treatment, the occurrence of such complications as numbness of a part of the body where surgery was performed, partial hearing impairment is possible.

The method of radiofrequency ablation consists of exposure to high temperature under the action of local anesthesia. The effect is observed a month after the treatment.

The method of microvascular decompression consists in moving and / or removing blood vessels that put pressure on the nerve endings.
The glycerin injection is the penetration of a very thin needle into the nerve area.

It is worth noting that all surgeries are performed by a neurosurgeon in a hospital setting.

For the external treatment of neuralgia, analgesic and warming ointments are used. With their help, the muscles relax and blood circulation improves.

To non-traditional methods of treatment include phytotherapy and massage. Use the broth taken inside, rubbing compresses and ointments - for external use. It should be remembered that the use of preparations prepared on the basis of medicinal plants is permissible in addition to the basic therapy. The use of only one alternative therapy may not bring any therapeutic effect.

All treatment of any type of neuralgia should be carried out in compliance with bed rest. It is important to remember that timely started treatment always brings a positive effect. Therefore, it is imperative to begin therapy when the first signs of inflammation are detected.

Intercostal neuralgia

Treatment of this pathology can be carried out in two ways: by the conservative method and by surgical intervention. The first method will include:

    strict bed rest in the “on the back” position, it is good if an even shield is placed under the back;
    carrying out various measures aimed at extension (carried out depending on the type of the disease);
    the use of supporting corsets;
    after the subsidence of the acute period - massage;
    specially designed exercises to perform in the pool;
    drug therapy: painkillers and sedatives, ganglioblokatory, carrying out various types of blockades, vitamins of group B, Proserin, Nicotinic acid;
    use of physiotherapeutic methods.

This is how a complex of medical measures, which is written by a doctor, is aimed at eliminating this pathological process. According to the same scheme, the doctor paints therapy and other types of neuralgia.


There are a number of measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of the pathological process. These include:

    regular exercise;
    proper nutrition;
    timely rehabilitation of chronic foci of infection;
    prevention of infection with infectious agents;
    cold factor prevention;
    the ratio of mental and physical activity;
    avoidance of traumatic injuries;
    sufficient rest.

At the first manifestations of the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor who will conduct an examination, make a diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment. Self-medication can be dangerous to health.