Types of warts, causes and methods of treatment
HPV (human papillomavirus) may not manifest itself externally for a long time, but as soon as the immune system fails, the pathogen is immediately activated: the cells begin to divide pathologically, as a result of which skin growths appear on the skin. Depending on the species, the warts look like elevations on the skin of a round, oval, irregular or threadlike shape.
Causes and Risk Factors
From the appearance of warts can not be insured.
The cause of infection is the contact of a healthy person with an infected carrier.
The path of penetration of the virus into the skin - microscopic cracks, scratches, wounds and other violations of the integrity of the epidermis.
Another trigger factor for the introduction of HPV is a decrease in the protective function of the body when the immune system does not recognize the introduction of an alien agent or does not have time to cope with it.
External factors for the appearance of warts are:
physical contact with an infected carrier (handshake, hugs, touches);
through the surfaces on which the epithelial cells of HPV carriers are located (for example, in the pool, shower, personal hygiene items, clothing and shoes).
Hypothermia, frequent colds, the presence of other chronic viral and fungal infections (herpes, mycoses, candidiasis) can reduce the local immunity of the skin and contribute to the active reproduction of the papilloma virus. Stress, unhealthy diet, bad habits can also significantly reduce the protective function of the body and make the skin vulnerable to the entry of foreign microorganisms.
Are warts contagious?
All warts are relatively infectious. They are transferred from one carrier to another by contact, but this requires certain conditions (reduced immunity, skin damage).
Note! Airborne infection - does not apply to the method of infection with warts. It is impossible to contract them from a person who is just located in the same room, for this, physical contact with his skin or clothes, shoes, and personal hygiene items (hairbrushes, towels, washcloths) is necessary.
Types of warts and localization
There are several types of warts, which differ from each other in the nature of the formation, the type of pathogen and external signs: shape, size, color and localization on the body. New growths can affect all parts of the body: the scalp, face, hands, soles, armpits and groin area. There is a special kind of skin growths that are formed under the influence of HPV - warts occurring in the genital area and anus, which is caused by sexual transmission of the virus.
Vulgar or common warts are the most common form of this skin disease. They can be localized on any part of the body, but most often - on the hands, fingers, feet, face.
Ordinary warts are small (2-3 mm) painless bodily color elevations of irregular shape. These can be single neoplasms or wart clusters.
Juvenile or flat warts are small neoplasms of light beige, brown or reddish-flesh color. They do not rise much above the surface of the epidermis and most often affect the fingers and hands, face, soles, and the body.
Hanging warts are round, oval or irregular. A common feature of this type of skin neoplasm is the presence of a narrow “leg” on which warts hold. Most often, hanging warts appear on the face and neck, in the armpits, on the body, under the mammary glands of women.
Localization of this type of warts is understandable by name. They are similar to ordinary ones, but differ from them in their larger size and more rigid and coarse structure. They affect the inside of the foot, toes, heel. Because of the coarse dense consistency of the growths often interfere with walking.
The elongated shape of the neoplasm is reflected in the name of this type of warts. Filamentous growths have an elongated elongated shape and solid, light brown or yellowish tint. Most often they affect the face, neck, underarms - less often the groin area.
Are warts dangerous?
Formations on the skin are completely painless and do not cause the wearer any physical discomfort, except when the warts are subjected to permanent damage (rubbing of clothing, scratching, mechanical damage when shaving).
Most often, the removal of warts is associated with psychological discomfort: on the arms, face, legs, and body, they look unaesthetic, causing limitations in communication, difficulties in socialization.
In rare cases, skin tumors caused by HPV activity can degenerate and form abnormal cells in the precancerous condition. In case of immunodeficiency or genetic susceptibility to cancer, constant monitoring of warts and moles is necessary in order not to miss their transition to the malignant stage.
Diagnosis of warts
Usually the appearance of warts does not make itself felt until the formation of growths on the fingers, feet, face, neck or torso. In rare cases, a person may experience a slight itching and tingling in places affected by HPV.
The dermatologist can determine the type of warts and their varieties by visual inspection. Usually they are easily diagnosed, despite the fact that their clinical features differ depending on the location.
Warts are characterized by their own network of capillaries, which allow them to be distinguished from corns, depriving or keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma and nevus, resembling an outwardly ordinary wart.
Routine inspection is most often sufficient, and only in difficult cases additional studies are carried out that allow you to determine the strain of the pathogen virus and the nature of the formation.
Among the methods to do a complete study of warts:
PCR (analysis of the determination of the genotype of the virus),
Treatment and removal of warts
To get rid of warts, you can use complex measures - enhancing the protective function of the body and inhibiting the life of HPV. Antiviral drugs based on interferon, as well as immunomodulators are used to combat the virus. If there is a need to get rid of warts, then you can go to use several methods of removal.
Vulgar and flat warts can be removed with the help of ointments with an antiviral component (ointments and "Viferon" gels with interferon content). Various cautious external agents based on celandine are popular, causing local necrotization of the skin at the site of the wart. They effectively cope with skin neoplasms, but have a significant drawback - scars are often formed at the site of their use.
Treatment of folk remedies
Folk remedies in the fight against warts are not effective enough, and their use often not only prevents the removal of education, but, on the contrary, leads to an even greater spread of the virus. To remove at home, most often use the juice of celandine, which in folk medicine has long been used to cauterize various growths.
Other popular folk treatments for warts are garlic juice, onion, bitter pepper and other herbal preparations.
Treatment and removal of warts in the hospital
It is most effective to remove warts in the dermatology room using various modern methods that allow you to get rid of various types of education safely, quickly, without complications and in most cases without a trace in the form of scars.
cryodestruction with liquid nitrogen;
shock wave therapy;
Each of these methods has its pros and cons. When choosing the option of removal, not only the nature and size of the formation, but also the preferences of the patient are taken into account.
Preventing the formation of warts
You can avoid the appearance of warts, carefully observing the rules of personal hygiene. The key among them is the use of exclusively personal towels, manicure tools, bath sponges. It is better not to walk in public places without shoes: for example, in baths, saunas and swimming pools, where moisture and heat create favorable conditions for the reproduction of the virus.
You can not give a chance for the appearance of warts, if you care about immunity. Because the body itself is able to resist the virus, if its defenses are strong enough.