What is Avitaminosis?


Essential vitamins for the human body

    Hair - A, B2, B6, F, H.
    Eyes - A and B.
    Teeth - E and D.
    Nails - A, D and C.
    Vitamins A, B, B12, E and F have a beneficial effect on the skin and on the whole body.

The main reasons for the development of avitaminosis

The disease is typical for the winter-spring period, when a source of many vitamins, vegetables and fruits are not as accessible and saturated with vitamins as in summer and autumn. However, in summer it is not so easy to get the required amount of vitamins from fruits only. To fill the daily need for vitamins and trace elements, you need to eat at least 1.5-2 kg of fruits, berries and vegetables.
Of course, other factors of general negative influence on the body also play their role: unbalanced nutrition, eating poor quality food, smoking, environmental conditions that are far from ideal. These processes, both external and internal, interfere not only with the ingestion of vitamins from food, but in most cases violate the possibility of absorption of vitamins from the digestive system into the blood. Thus, the body, having the necessary amount of vitamins in food, cannot “take” them. In this case, vitamin deficiency develops as a result of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This is possible in children with malabsorption syndrome, when the process of digestion and absorption of various nutrients contained in food is greatly disturbed, and the absorption of vitamins is also affected. Another cause of vitamin deficiency can be intestinal dysbiosis. Often dysbacteriosis is a consequence of long-term antibiotic treatment.
The ingestion of “antivitamins” is another reason. Antivitamins are substances that have the opposite effect to vitamins. More precisely, antivitamins make it impossible for the function of vitamins and lead to the development of vitamin deficiency even with a normal content of vitamins in the body. One example of the toxic action of antivitamins is vitamin K antagonist poisoning (syncumar, dicumarol) in the treatment of increased blood clotting. At the same time the hemorrhagic syndrome characteristic of classical vitamin K deficiency develops.
But the main reason for the appearance of this disease is the lack of physical ability to obtain all the required vitamins with food.

Signs of avitaminosis

We are always afraid of vitamin deficiency. How to determine on their own whether we really lack them. As experts say, rarely when the body lacks only one specific vitamin. As a rule, we need a group of these nutrients. If a person refuses animal products, there is usually not enough vitamin A, D, E and biotin. If there are not enough plant products in the diet, then there is a deficiency of vitamins C and group B.

So, what signs will give avitaminosis:

    Shelled skin
Lack of vitamins makes the skin dry and flaky. And sometimes you can even see the appearance of coarse flaky scales of the epidermis. Watch out if your lips are constantly cracked or peeling off, suddenly there was acne, as well as cracks and sores in the corners of the mouth. The appearance of inflamed areas of skin, large bruises, or an unusual reaction to jewelry or clothing can all be a sign of a lack of vitamins.

    Overlapping nails
With a lack of vitamins, nails become dull, brittle, and even their care products, such as oils or special products, do not save the situation. The lack of vitamins is also indicated by the paleness of the nail plate, the appearance of dimples, stripes or spots on it.

    Hair fall out
The main symptom of a lack of vitamins on the part of the hair is their fragility and tendency to loss. But the sudden appearance of dandruff, gray hair, ulcers and pimples on the scalp or its constant itching should also alert.

    Blush and watery eyes
Reduced vision, especially at dusk, is the most serious sign of vitamin deficiency. In addition, hypovitaminosis can cause redness and swelling of the eyelids, persistent itching and discharge from the eyes, and frequent inflammatory diseases. Often the consequence of a lack of vitamins becomes intolerance to bright light, glare, double vision and even a developing cataract.

    Gums are bleeding
Increased bleeding of the gums, sores on the cheeks and tongue, loose teeth with sensitive enamel and a tendency to crumble, as well as swollen, patchy or discolored language are also obvious signs of a lack of vitamins.

    The face swells, the joints swell
The appearance of edema on the face and hands that are not related to marinades or yesterday’s alcohol intake should be wary. Sudden swelling of the joints, numbness, muscle pain, cramps, and poor coordination of movement may also be symptoms of a lack of vitamins.

    Smell changes
In addition, muscle weakness, a burning sensation under the skin and in the joints, as well as a constant feeling of cold and even increased or changed body odor indicate a vitamin deficiency.

    Apathy, poor concentration
Our nervous system also reacts to the lack of vitamins. Inability to concentrate, insomnia, depression, apathy, irritability, lack of energy, constant irritability - all this may be signs of a lack of vitamins.

    Failure in digestion
Constipation, diarrhea, change in taste, weight gain, increased cholesterol in the blood, nausea and intestinal absorption of nutrients are symptoms of vitamin deficiency. And even loss of appetite, smell and taste.

    Lack of desire
In many cases, reducing sexual desire is not to blame for fatigue, and unbalanced diet.

Types of avitaminosis

    Vitamin A vitamin deficiency. This vitamin plays an important role in the normal functioning of the organ of vision, therefore its deficiency will cause disturbances in the work of the visual analyzer. Appear "night blindness" (deterioration of twilight vision), dryness of the mucous membrane of the eye (feeling of sand, burning, discomfort), due to the constant scratching which may even form sores. The importance of this vitamin plays out for the skin. If it is not enough, the skin becomes dry, with small boils and inflammations, it can peel off. If a lack of vitamin A is observed in a child, then its development will be slowed down, there may be disturbances in the nervous system. Also, with this type of avitaminosis, immunity will decrease, which is fraught with increased incidence.
    Vitamin deficiency associated with a lack of vitamins B-group will manifest insomnia, sudden mood swings. There will be disorders of the digestive system in the form of constipation or diarrhea, anorexia. Mouth mucosa in this pathology is inflamed. There will be "zadyy".
    Vitamin C deficiency. It will manifest as increased fatigue, decreased performance, drowsiness, reduced resistance to various infections. The elasticity of the skin will also decrease. A small blow will produce significant bruises and bruises. Eyesight deteriorates. An extreme form of vitamin C deficiency is the development of Tsing's disease, the main symptom of which is bleeding gums and tooth loss.
    A lack of vitamin D will most quickly cause a disorder in the musculoskeletal system. If we talk about children, then they will experience the development of rickets, fatigue, sweating, the formation of skeleton and teeth will be disturbed. In adults, due to the lack of this vitamin, brittle bones, pain in the musculoskeletal system, tooth decay will be observed. It is important to remember that the lack of this vitamin can cause the development of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and even cancer.
    With a lack of vitamin E in the body, the genital organs are disturbed, and there are changes in the liver - the fatty degeneration of its cells begins.
    With a lack of vitamin PP, the digestive system suffers in the first place. Immediately there will be aversion to food, dry mouth, vomiting, and abnormal stools will be observed. In addition, significant violations will be observed in the stomach. So, this body will stop secreting gastric juice. The general condition will deteriorate significantly. In addition, violations will be visible on the skin. The skin will become rough to the touch, there will be areas of depigmentation.

Treatment of avitaminosis

Since the main cause of avitaminosis remains an unbalanced diet, the main measure of its treatment is the correction of its diet. Proper nutrition, by the way, will be a measure of prevention of such a condition. So, for a start it should be said that the basis of the diet should be as simple as possible products, culinary processing of which will be minimal. Whole cereal porridge should be eaten, as well as bread made from wholemeal flour. Of course, do not forget that there should be as much as possible a variety of fruits and vegetables. And, of course, you cannot exclude meat products from your diet. You can also use synthetic vitamins to correct the condition, but it is still better to give preference to food. Treatment is possible only in the form of replenishing vitamin deficiencies with food intake or in the form of vitamin preparations. But since the latter are not very effective, it may be optimal to use folk remedies to combat vitamin deficiencies. It is also important to lead a healthy lifestyle, if possible to live in a favorable ecological environment and in time to treat diseases that may impair the ability of vitamins to be absorbed in the body.


Treatment of avitaminosis is not difficult if its appearance is caused only by malnutrition. You just need to adjust your diet: eat as much as possible whole grain cereals (the best option is oatmeal and buckwheat), try to serve foods that are minimally culinary. When eating bakery products, preference should be given to those made from coarse flour. Oil is better to use unrefined. Fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet should be required.
In this case, in no case can not refuse from animal products. The required daily amount of vitamin A is contained in the yolks of chicken eggs, beef liver, fish oil. An excellent source of essential vitamins is fermented milk products (kefir, yogurt, ryazhenka), which also contain a lot of calcium.
If we are talking about the treatment and prevention of vitamin C deficiency, then more should be consumed products, which include vitamin C contains: citrus fruits, apples, red and black currants, sauerkraut. In fact, with the goal of maximizing the micronutrients necessary for health, each person is fully capable of organizing proper nutrition.

Vitamins and complexes

Our ancestors were much more active lifestyle and worked hard, spending energy and strength. If you start eating like this, then the problem with vitamin deficiency will most likely be solved by earning a new one - overweight. That's why it makes sense to use vitamin complexes produced in various dosage forms. If you take such complexes in therapeutic doses, they do not accumulate in the body and do not give side effects. No need to fear the use of synthetic vitamins. They also do not cause side effects and allergic reactions.
Modern multivitamins are harmoniously balanced, chemically pure compounds that do not have the disadvantages that are present in preparations of plant and animal origin. It is only important not to forget that the main part of the vitamins is absorbed only with food intake, that it is impossible to drink coffee, soda water and milk with vitamins in order to avoid insufficient absorption. Today there is a great variety of options for such vitamins: pills, tablets, powders, capsules, liquid form. The most convenient form is a capsule, which, as it moves through the intestine, loses layer after layer, with the result that vitamins are easily absorbed. Take the capsule without chewing, entirely. The best time to take multivitamin complexes is the morning. The use of vitamins should not exceed the daily need for them! Overdose threatens to adversely affect the general condition and lead to new diseases.

How to pick up vitamins?

The selection of vitamins in vitamin deficiency selects a nutritionist, depending on the clinical manifestations of vitamin deficiency. At this stage, the smaller the person will be amateur, the more positive the forecast will be.
Doctors recommend taking vitamins in the form of capsules, because they are made in such a way that as they move through the organs of digestion at each stage, the vitamins are gradually absorbed by the body, providing its entire path with the necessary dose of nutrients.

How to take vitamins?

The most suitable time for taking vitamins is the morning when the body adjusts to daily activity. Most vitamins are absorbed only with food. But do not drink vitamins milk, soda and coffee - these drinks can interfere with their normal absorption. Vitamins in the form of capsules must be taken whole, without chewing.

Consequences of avitaminosis

    Avitaminosis A (retinol). It can lead to inhibition in the development and growth of the child, as well as cause vision problems, night blindness.
    Avitaminosis B1 (thiamine). Thiamine deficiency can trigger the onset of a disease like avitaminosis.
    Avitaminosis B2 (riboflavin). A lack of riboflavin can trigger the development of such diseases as cataract, conjunctivitis, growth retardation in children, and mental retardation.
    Avitaminosis B3 (PP, niacin). Niacin deficiency can trigger the development of a disease like - pellagra.
    Avitaminosis B5 (pantothenic acid). It is a common cause of spontaneous abortion of children in the early stages.
    Avitaminosis B9 (folic acid). Manifested in the form of impaired reproductive function in men, as well as anemia.
    Avitaminosis B12 (cobalamin). Contributes to deviations of mental activity - poor memory, absent-mindedness, dementia.
    Avitaminosis C (ascorbic acid). A lack of ascorbic acid for a long time can lead to the development of such a disease as scurvy.
    Avitaminosis D (calciferol). Calciferol deficiency for a long time can lead to the development of such a disease as - rickets.
    Avitaminosis E (tocopherol). Tocopherol deficiency can lead to muscular dystrophy, anemia, and anemia.
    Avitaminosis F (linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid). In children under 1 year of age is reflected in the lag in growth and development. The tendency to cardiovascular diseases - atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke increases.
    Avitaminosis K. It manifests itself in the form of severe bleeding, from the nose, gums, subcutaneous, in the digestive tract.

Symptoms of child avitaminosis

Often, children suffer from avitaminosis. That is why caring parents must know about how vitamin deficiency manifests itself in children. So, the first sign of lack, may be a decrease in the activity of the baby, deterioration of appetite and a decrease in immunity. If avitaminosis lasts long enough, then it is quite possible the lag of the baby in development and growth from their peers.
Also, with a deficiency of vitamin D and calcium, a child can develop a disease called rickets. This pathology occurs in infants and children. Such a disease can lead to serious problems with the musculoskeletal system in the future. Therefore, parents should ask the qualified pediatrician about what to do with vitamin deficiency and how to prevent it. Indeed, in this case, only prevention will prevent the occurrence of serious problems.
So, vitamin deficiency manifests itself in different ways, affecting a particular area of ​​the human body. To determine what kind of substance is missing, only a therapist can. Occasionally, a special analysis for the content of vitamins in the blood is carried out according to its purpose. In any case, an attentive attitude towards one's own health will, if not prevent avitaminosis, then at least cure it in time.